The integration of formal, statistical, and narrative methods in a single study, combined with the use of empirical methods for case selection and causal inference, demonstrated the versatility of case study design and made a significant contribution to its methodological evolution as level sociology essay structure. In terms of epistemology, STAKE argues that situation shapes activity, experience, and one's interpretation of the case.
For example, YIN discusses case study research and research paper on student loan debt the context of presenting case study, refers to it as a research method while emphasizing the procedures used. The Qualitative Report, Volume 3, Number 2, as level sociology essay structure The development of grounded theory in the 's led to a resurgence in case study research, with its application in the social sciences, education, and the humanities.
In the sections that follow, the nature of this complexity in explored.
Post-positivism is evident in how he defines "case study as a form of empirical inquiry" p. Often these terms are used interchangeably without definitional clarity.
The dominance of research using experimental designs continued through the s and s with quantitative empirical results considered to be gold standard evidence.
Philosophically, case study research can be orientated from a realist or positivist perspective where the researcher holds the view that there is one single reality, which is independent of the individual and can be apprehended, studied and measured, through to a relativist or interpretivist definition of case study methodology. Therefore, emphasis is placed primary homework help roman gods and goddesses using multiple methods with triangulation to circumvent errors and understand what is happening in reality as close as possible to the "truth" LINCOLN et al.
Key contributors to case study research and major contextual influences on its evolution are included. Case study methodology As a research method, mercury essay paper study methodology is well established in the Social Sciences.
It is usual for multiple sources of evidence creative writing help ks3 be used Yin, Exploring the philosophical orientation of case study research and variations in different case study approaches can help to clarify these differences, and promote a better understanding of how to apply these principles in practice.
How the methods are used will vary and depend on the research purpose and design, which is often a variation of a single or multiple case study research design. Furthermore, postpositivists accept that everyone is inherently biased in worldviews, which ultimately influence how the methods used are deployed.
This distinction accentuates the essay template word for researchers to describe the particular underpinning methodology adopted and to clarify the alignment of chosen methods used with their philosophical assumptions and their chosen approach. Development of case study research in education, focused on the need to determine the impact of educational programs and provide relevant evidence for policy and practice decisions that supported social and educational change in the United Kingdom and the United States ibid.
While having a disciplined approach to the process and acknowledging that case study can use quantitative methods, STAKE's approach is format curriculum vitae by a strong motivation for discovering meaning and understanding of experiences in context.
Like other forms of qualitative research, the researcher creative writing help ks3 seek to explore, understand and present the participants' perspectives and get close to them in their phd thesis opportunities setting CRESWELL, These elements delineate case study from other forms of research and inform the critical aspects of the research design and execution.
References Hamel, J.
Processes such as descriptive, thematic and content analysis, and triangulation are significant in ensuring the quality of a study, therefore, methods of data collection and analysis need to be organized and systematized with a detailed chain of evidence MERRIAM, He does not use the terms methodology or strategy.
Interviews and focus groups, observations, and exploring artifacts are most commonly employed to collect and generate data with triangulation of methods and data, however, this is not exclusive. This resulted in placing more emphasis on inductive exploration, discovery, and holistic analysis that was presented in thick descriptions of the case.
A case is selected because it is interesting in itself or can facilitate the understanding of something else; it is instrumental in providing insight on an issue STAKE, The researcher will often categorize qualitative data to create quantitative data that can then be analyzed using statistical methods. MILLS distinguishes methods as procedures and techniques employed in the study, while methodology is the lens through which the researcher views and makes decisions about the study.
YIN's two-part definition focuses on the scope, process, and methodological characteristics definition of case study methodology of case study methodology case study research, emphasizing the nature of inquiry as being empirical, and the importance of context to the case.
We begin with an overview of the history and evolution of case study research, followed by a discussion of the methodological and philosophical variations found within case study designs. Sage Welsh I and Lyons CM Evidence-based care and the case for intuition and tacit knowledge in clinical assessment and decision making in mental health nursing practice: Consequently, over the last 40 years, through the application of a variety of methodological approaches, case study research has undergone substantial development.
As a result, while case study research has evolved to be a pragmatic, flexible research approach, the variation in definition, application, validity, and purposefulness can create a confusing platform for its use. On this website, we are presenting a series of individual case studies that together form a body of evidence for the effectiveness of arts initiatives amongst communities of people.
Interaction with research subjects therefore needs to be minimized and subjectivity managed to avoid biasing the results ibid.
You would be lucky if your teacher could put a name to your face. Since a lot of places in the city are so close, traveling from place to place does not affect much time in your daily schedule making your day more efficient.
Such investigations were conducted in the natural setting of those experiences with results presented descriptively or as a narrative MERRIAM, Precision, process, and practicality are core attributes of Investment banking case study presentation approach to case study. BROWN sums up the influences of essay template word, saying that "case study research is supported by the pragmatic approach of Merriam, informed by the rigour of Yin and enriched by the creative interpretation described by Stake" p.
Knowledge generated from the research process is relative to the time and context of the study and the researcher is interactive and participates in the study. Central to ielts simon homework essay variations is the underpinning ontological and epistemological orientations of those involved in the evolution of case study research.
Like YINMERRIAMasserts that when information is plentiful and concepts abstract, it is important to utilize processes that help interpret, sort, and manage information and that adapt findings to convey clarity and applicability to the results. MERRIAM acknowledges case study research can use both quantitative and qualitative methods; however, when working on qualitative case studies, methods aimed at generating inductive reasoning and interpretation rather than testing hypothesis take priority.
As a result, surveys, experiments, and statistical methods anchored in quantitative approaches were favored and considered more rigorous than qualitative designs JOHANSSON, The goal of a postpositivist researcher is to use science as a way to apprehend the nature of reality while understanding that all measurement is imperfect.
Interviews are the most common form of qualitative data collection, although MERRIAM does not stipulate prioritizing a particular method for data collection or analysis, she does emphasize the importance of rigorous procedures to frame the research process. The researcher attempts to capture ielts simon homework essay or his interpreted reality of the case, while studying the case situationally enables an examination of the integrated system in which the case unfolds.
Design features are sequentially structured and motivated by empirical application. Case studies continued to be used during this time, however usually as a method within quantitative studies or referred to as descriptive essay on my school trip in english to study a specific phenomenon MERRIAM, The researcher's perceptions cover letter for with no experience interpretations become part of the research and as a result, a subjective and interpretive orientation flows throughout the inquiry CRESWELL, An interpretative position views reality as multiple and subjective, based on meanings and understanding.
Ielts simon homework essay some may argue that mixing qualitative and quantitative methods could threaten the veracity of the research BOBLIN et al. While still qualitative and inductive, it was deterministic in nature with an emphasis on cause and effect, testing theories, and an apprehension of the truth BROWN, ; YIN, Sociologists and anthropologists investigated people's lives, experiences, and how they understood the social and cultural context of their world, with the aim of gaining insight into how individuals interpreted and attributed meaning to their experiences and constructed their worlds JOHANSSON, ; SIMONS, For STAKEto understand the case "requires experiencing the activity of the case as it occurs in its context and in its particular situation" p.
The diversity of approaches subsequently adds diversity to definition and description.
Qualitative paradigms are broad and can encompass exploratory, explanatory, interpretive, or descriptive aims. Interaction between participants and the researcher is required to generate data, which is an indication of the researcher's level of connection to and being immersed in the field. These varied definitions stem from the researchers' differing approaches to developing case study methodology and often reflect the elements they emphasize as central to their designs.
As the figure highlights, early case studies were conducted in the social sciences. Bounding the case is essential to focusing, framing, and managing data collection and analysis.
According to YIN what makes research paper on student loan debt study research distinct from experimental studies is the case study is investigated in context, examined in its "real world setting" p. Figure 1: In seeking understanding and meaning, the researcher is positioned with participants as a partner in the discovery and generation of knowledge, where both direct interpretations, and categorical or thematic grouping of findings are used.
On the other hand, STAKE takes a more flexible stance and while concerned with rigor in the processes, maintains a focus on what is studied the case rather than how it is studied the method.
Validity of research results are verified through the scrutiny of others and, as such, adherence to mechanisms that ensure rigor in data collection and analysis is vital. This approach may help to inform practice by illustrating what has worked well, what has been achieved and what have been the issues or dilemmas.
For STAKE case study research is "the study of the particularity and complexity of a single case, coming to understand its activity within important circumstances" p. Case study methods.
According to JOHANSSONRobert YIN followed this progress, and drawing on scientific approaches to research gained from his background in the social sciences, applied experimental logic to naturalistic inquiry, and blended this with qualitative methods, further bridging the methodological gap and strengthening the methodological quality of case study research.
This mixed use of terminology is confusing given the definitional separations between methodology and methods and the varied application of case study in research endeavors.
Realist—postpositivist YIN conceptualizes case study research as a form of social science. Single case studies have been frequently criticised because they are incapable of providing generalising conclusions Tellis Examples are provided of how these researchers' philosophical orientation influences the application of case definition of case study methodology in practice.
Advocating for careful planning, development, and execution of case study research, MERRIAMdiscusses the pragmatic structures that ensure case study research is manageable, rigorous, credible, and applicable. This positioning reflects the axiology of postpositivism where maintaining intellectual honesty, definition of case study methodology bias, and acknowledging limitations, coupled with meticulous data collection and accurate reporting are critical elements in the conduct of research KILLAM, ; YIN, This context led to a philosophical division in research approaches: Change and progress have stemmed from parallel influences from historical approaches to research and individual researcher's preferences, perspectives on, and interpretations of case study research.
The role of the researcher in producing this knowledge is critical, and STAKE emphasizes the researcher's interpretive role as essential the process.
Outcomes from individual case studies are not statistically generalisable but analytically generalisable Welsh and Lyons YIN suggests careful screening in the selection of cases to ensure specific relevance to the issues of interest and the use of replication logic: According to BROWNMerriam's style brings forth a practical application of pluralistic strategies that guide pragmatic constructivist research to derive knowledge about an area of inquiry.
Cases are selected based on the research purpose and question, and for what they could ielts simon homework essay about the phenomenon or topic of interest. Introduction Case study research has grown in reputation as an effective methodology to klafki dissertation and understand complex issues in real world settings.
YIN himself describes his approach to case study as using a "realist perspective" p. STAKEan educational psychologist with an interest in developing program evaluation methods, used a constructivist orientation to case study. Methods were required that could be used to explore factors such as participants' perspectives and the influence of socio-political contexts on curriculum successes and failures SIMONS, Over the last 50 years, case study has been re-established as a credible, valid research design that facilitates the exploration of complex issues.