Introduction Case study research has grown in reputation as an effective methodology to investigate and understand complex issues in real world settings.
Exploring the philosophical orientation of case study research and variations in different case study approaches can help to clarify these differences, and promote a better understanding of how to apply these principles in practice. On the other hand, STAKE takes a more flexible stance and while concerned with rigor in the processes, maintains a focus on what is studied the case rather than how it is studied the method.
Aqa gcse geography coursework mark scheme of cases is amazon rainforest case study a level on the purpose of the research and related to the theoretical propositions about the topic of interest.
While objectivity is a goal, YIN also recognizes the descriptive and interpretive elements of case study. Types of case studies[ edit ] In public-relations research, three types of case studies are used: Saul McLeodupdated Case studies are in-depth investigations of a single person, group, event or community. Under the more generalized category of case study exist several subdivisions, each of which is custom selected for use depending upon the goals of the investigator.
For example, Freud has been criticized for producing case studies in which the information was sometimes distorted to fit the particular theories about behavior e.
We begin with an overview of the history and evolution of case study research, followed by a discussion of the methodological and philosophical variations found within case study designs. We end with a summary of the common characteristics of case study research and a table that brings together the fundamental elements that we found common in all case study approaches to research.
Long-term Review and Clinical Implications. A case is selected because it is interesting in itself or can facilitate the understanding of something else; it is instrumental in providing insight on an issue STAKE, The research may also continue for an extended period of time, so processes and developments can be studied as they happen.
Methods were required that could be used to explore factors such as participants' perspectives and the influence of cover letter for driver messenger contexts on curriculum successes and failures SIMONS, This critical thinking in nursing amazon from interviews and other sources, such as observation.
Analysis of a phobia of a five year old boy. The primary pitfall of this type of study is that initial findings may seem convincing enough to be released prematurely as conclusions.
Little Hans. Qualitative paradigms are broad and can encompass exploratory, explanatory, interpretive, or descriptive aims.
Interpreting the information means the researcher decides what to include or leave out. Retrieved from https: Philosophically, case study research can be orientated from a realist or positivist perspective where the researcher holds the view that there is one single reality, which is independent of the individual and can be apprehended, studied and measured, through to a relativist or interpretivist perspective.
The researcher then writes up the information from both sources above as the case study, and interprets the information.
Like YINMERRIAMasserts that when information is plentiful and concepts abstract, it is important to utilize processes that help interpret, sort, and manage information and that adapt findings to convey clarity and applicability to the results. Case selection and structure[ edit ] An average, best resume writing service dc typical case, is often not the richest in information.
YIN's two-part definition focuses on the scope, process, and methodological characteristics of case study research, emphasizing the nature of inquiry as being empirical, and the importance of context to the case. Interaction between participants and the researcher is required to generate data, which is an indication of the researcher's level of connection to and being immersed in the field.
Case studies continued to be used during this time, however usually as a method within quantitative studies or referred to as descriptive research to study a specific phenomenon MERRIAM, He presented a business plan prada process for undertaking case study research where formal propositions or theories guide the research process and are tested as part of the outcome, highlighting his realist approach to qualitative case study research.
Examples are provided of how these researchers' philosophical orientation influences the application of case study in practice. Interaction with research subjects therefore needs to be minimized and subjectivity managed to avoid biasing the results ibid. Bounding the case is essential to focusing, framing, and managing data collection and analysis.
A case is selected because it is interesting in itself or can facilitate the understanding of something else; it is instrumental in providing insight on an issue STAKE, Case study designs have been used across a number of disciplines, particularly the social sciences, education, business, law, and health, to address a wide range of research questions.
According to BROWNMerriam's style brings forth a practical application of pluralistic strategies that guide pragmatic constructivist research to derive knowledge about an area of inquiry. The researcher attempts to capture her or his interpreted reality of the case, while studying the case situationally enables an examination of the integrated system in which the case unfolds.
Furthermore, postpositivists accept that everyone is inherently biased in why using case study approach, which ultimately influence how the methods used are deployed. These elements delineate case study from other forms of research and inform the critical aspects of the research design and execution.
Validity of research results are verified through the scrutiny of others and, as such, adherence to mechanisms that ensure rigor in data collection and analysis is vital. An interpretative position views reality as multiple and subjective, based on meanings and understanding. The subject is the "practical, historical unity" through which the theoretical focus of the study is being viewed.
Therefore, emphasis is placed on using multiple methods with triangulation to circumvent errors and understand what is happening in reality as close as possible to the "truth" LINCOLN et al.
All the approaches mentioned here use preconceived categories in the analysis and they are ideographic in their approach, i. This mixed use of terminology is confusing given the definitional separations between methodology and methods and the varied application of case study in research endeavors.
Alternatively it may be chosen because of researchers' in-depth local knowledge; where researchers have this local knowledge they are in a position to "soak and poke" as Richard Fenno put it,  and thereby to offer reasoned lines of explanation based on this rich knowledge of setting and circumstances.
Pragmatic constructivist MERRIAM maintains a constructivist approach to case study research, whereby the researcher assumes that reality is constructed intersubjectively through meanings and understandings developed socially and experientially. How the methods are used will vary and depend on the research purpose and design, which is often a variation of a single or multiple case study research design.
Strengths of Case Studies Provides detailed rich qualitative information. Here, anthropologists practiced their methods on university cultures or by conducting lengthy case studies involving field-based observations of groups with the aim of understanding their social and cultural lives CRESWELL et critical thinking in nursing amazon.
This makes it clear that the case study is a method that should only be used by a psychologist, therapist or psychiatrist, i. This means that there is a lot of scope for observer bias and it could be that the subjective opinions of the psychologist intrude in the assessment of what the data means.
Connect the facts and quotations you've assembled into a narrative that walks the reader from start to finish.
The idea behind these studies is that the collection of past studies will allow for greater generalization without additional cost or time being expended on new, possibly repetitive studies. Over the last 50 years, case study has been re-established as a credible, valid research design that facilitates the exploration of complex issues.
Change and progress have stemmed from parallel influences from historical approaches to research and individual researcher's preferences, perspectives on, and interpretations of case study research. Because of this, constructivism and interpretivism maternity cover letter template permeate the implementation of this research design.
Case studies are widely used in psychology and amongst the best known were the ones carried out by Sigmund Freud. In psychology, case studies are often confined to the study of a particular individual. While some may argue that mixing qualitative case study on lakme beauty salon quantitative methods could threaten the veracity of the research BOBLIN et al.
Teaching case studies have been a highly popular pedagogical format in many fields ranging from business education to science education. A good case study should always make clear which information is factual description and which is an inference or the opinion of the researcher.
Because of their in-depth, multi-sided approach case studies often shed light on aspects of human thinking and behavior that would be unethical or impractical to study in other ways. He conducted very detailed investigations into the private lives of his patients in an attempt to both understand and help them overcome their illnesses.
Illustrative case studies.
Similar to STAKE, MERRIAMwas not as structured in her approach as YINbut promoted the use of a theoretical framework cover letter for driver messenger research questions to cover letter samples for data entry job the case study and organized, systematic very short essay on sound pollution collection to manage the process of inquiry.
Often these terms are used interchangeably without definitional clarity. In order to fulfill this need, the organization must gather pertient information. The results of the study are not generalizable because we can never know whether the case we have investigated is representative of the wider body of "similar" instances Because they are based on the analysis of qualitative i. As a result, while case study research has evolved to be a pragmatic, flexible research approach, the variation in definition, application, validity, and purposefulness can create a confusing platform for its use.
Most of this information is likely to be qualitative i. The researcher will often categorize qualitative data to create quantitative data that can then be analyzed using statistical methods. Even today case histories are one of the main methods of investigation in abnormal psychology and psychiatry.
As the figure highlights, early case studies were conducted in the social sciences. This context led to a philosophical division in research approaches: They can help us generate new ideas that might be tested by other methods. The dominance of research using experimental designs continued through the s and s with quantitative empirical results considered to be gold standard evidence.
Advocating for careful planning, development, and execution of case study research, MERRIAMdiscusses the pragmatic structures that ensure case study research is manageable, rigorous, credible, and applicable.
Typically, data are gathered from a variety of sources and by using several different methods e. Central to these variations is the underpinning ontological and epistemological orientations of those involved in the evolution of case study research. Permitting investigation of otherwise impractical or unethical situations.
Key cases Why using case study approach cases Local knowledge cases Whatever the frame of reference best resume writing service dc the choice of the subject of the case study key, outlier, local knowledgethere is a distinction to be made between the subject and the object of the case study.
Figure best resume writing service dc The case study research method originated in clinical medicine the case history, i. STAKEan educational psychologist with an interest in developing program evaluation methods, used a constructivist orientation to case study. Sex Reassignment at Birth: This distinction accentuates the need for researchers to describe the particular underpinning methodology adopted and to clarify the alignment of chosen methods used with their philosophical assumptions and their chosen approach.
The goal of a postpositivist researcher is to use science as a way to apprehend the nature of reality while understanding that all measurement is imperfect. The procedure used in a case study means that the researcher provides a description of the behavior.
This method is useful for answering cause and effect questions. Case studies can be used to establish where the problem originates by utilizing several research methods. YIN himself describes his approach to case study as using a "realist perspective" p.
These varied definitions stem from the researchers' differing approaches to developing case study methodology and often reflect the elements they emphasize as central to their designs. In terms of epistemology, STAKE argues that situation shapes activity, experience, and one's interpretation of the case. Critical instance case studies. Researchers' own subjective feeling may influence the case study researcher bias.
When selecting a case for a case study, researchers will therefore use information-oriented sampling, as opposed to random sampling. According to YIN what makes case study research distinct from experimental studies amazon rainforest case study a level the case study is investigated in context, examined in its "real world setting" p.
There are substantial methodological differences between these approaches. For example, YIN discusses case study research and in the context of presenting case study, refers to it as a research method while emphasizing the procedures used.
These serve to aggregate information from why using case study approach sites collected at different times. According to JOHANSSONRobert YIN followed this progress, and drawing on scientific approaches to research gained from his background in the social sciences, applied experimental logic to naturalistic inquiry, and blended this with qualitative methods, further bridging the methodological gap and strengthening the methodological quality of case study research.
For students of these disciplines they can give a vivid insight into what those who suffer from mental illness often have to endure. In the sections that follow, the nature of this complexity in explored.
Exploratory or pilot case studies. MILLS distinguishes methods as procedures and techniques employed in the study, while methodology is the lens through which the researcher views and makes decisions about the study. Foundational Concepts While over time the contributions of researchers from varied disciplines have helped to develop and strengthen case study research, the variety of disciplinary backgrounds has also added complexity, particularly around how case study research is defined, described, and applied cover letter for driver messenger practice.